Academic phrases for writing introduction section of a research paper

Organizing Academic Research Papers: 4. The Introduction

The introduction serves the purpose of leading the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research. It establishes the context of the research being conducted by summarizing current understanding and background information about the topic, stating the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or research problem, briefly explaining your rationale, methodological approach, highlighting the potential outcomes your study can reveal, and describing the remaining structure of the paper.

Key Elements of the Research Proposal. Prepared under the direction of the Superintendent and by the 2010 Curriculum Design and Writing Team. Baltimore County Public Schools.

Importance of a Good Introduction

Think of the introduction as a mental road map that must answer for the reader these four questions:

  • What was I studying?
  • Why was this topic important to investigate?
  • What did we know about this topic before I did this study?
  • How will this study advance our knowledge?

A well-written introduction is important because, quite simply, you never get a second chance to make a good first impression. The opening paragraph of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions about the logic of your argument, your writing style, the overall quality of your research, and, ultimately, the validity of your findings and conclusions. A vague, disorganized, or error-filled introduction will create a negative impression, whereas, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will start your readers off thinking highly of your analytical skills, your writing style, and your research approach.

Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina.

Structure and Writing Style

I. Structure and Approach

The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions for the reader:

  1. What is this?
  2. Why am I reading it?
  3. What do you want me to think about / consider doing / react to?

Think of the structure of the introduction as an inverted triangle of information. Organize the information so as to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale and, whenever possible, the potential outcomes your study can reveal.

These are general phases associated with writing an introduction:

  1. Establish an area to research by:
    • Highlighting the importance of the topic, and/or
    • Making general statements about the topic, and/or
    • Presenting an overview on current research on the subject.
  2. Identify a research niche by:
    • Opposing an existing assumption, and/or
    • Revealing a gap in existing research, and/or
    • Formulating a research question or problem, and/or
    • Continuing a disciplinary tradition.
  3. Place your research within the research niche by:
    • Stating the intent of your study,
    • Outlining the key characteristics of your study,
    • Describing important results, and
    • Giving a brief overview of the structure of the paper.

NOTE: Even though the introduction is the first main section of a research paper, it is often useful to finish the introduction very late in the writing process because the structure of the paper, the reporting and analysis of results, and the conclusion will have been completed and it ensures that your introduction matches the overall structure of your paper.

II. Delimitations of the Study

Delimitations refer to those characteristics that limit the scope and define the conceptual boundaries of your study. This is determined by the conscious exclusionary and inclusionary decisions you make about how to investigate the research problem. In other words, not only should you tell the reader what it is you are studying and why, but you must also acknowledge why you rejected alternative approaches that could have been used to examine the research problem.

Obviously, the first limiting step was the choice of research problem itself. However, implicit are other, related problems that could have been chosen but were rejected. These should be noted in the conclusion of your introduction.

Examples of delimitating choices would be:

  • The key aims and objectives of your study,
  • The research questions that you address,
  • The variables of interest [i.e., the various factors and features of the phenomenon being studied],
  • The method(s) of investigation, and
  • Any relevant alternative theoretical frameworks that could have been adopted.

Review each of these decisions. You need to not only clearly establish what you intend to accomplish, but to also include a declaration of what the study does not intend to cover. In the latter case, your exclusionary decisions should be based upon criteria stated as, “not interesting”; “not directly relevant”; “too problematic because. “; “not feasible,” and the like. Make this reasoning explicit!

NOTE: Delimitations refer to the initial choices made about the broader, overall design of your study and should not be confused with documenting the limitations of your study discovered after the research has been completed.

III. The Narrative Flow

Issues to keep in mind that will help the narrative flow in your introduction:

  • Your introduction should clearly identify the subject area of interest. A simple strategy to follow is to use key words from your title in the first few sentences of the introduction. This will help focus the introduction on the topic at the appropriate level and ensures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general.
  • Establish context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literaturethat is available on the subject. The key is to summarize for the reader what is known about the specific research problem before you did your analysis. This part of your introduction should not represent a comprehensive literature review but consists of a general review of the important, foundational research literature (with citations) that lays a foundation for understanding key elements of the research problem. See the drop-down tab for “Background Information” for types of contexts.
  • Clearly state the hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a past statement like, “The purpose of this study was to. ” or “We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the. “
  • Why did you choose this kind of research study or design? Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the introduction.

IV. Engaging the Reader

The overarching goal of your introduction is to make your readers want to read your paper. The introduction should grab your reader’s attention. Strategies for doing this can be to:

  1. Open with a compelling story,
  2. Include a strong quotation or a vivid, perhaps unexpected anecdote,
  3. Pose a provocative or thought-provoking question,
  4. Describe a puzzling scenario or incongruity, or
  5. Cite a stirring example or case study that illustrates why the research problem is important.

NOTE: Only choose one strategy for engaging your readers; avoid giving an impression that your paper is more flash than substance.

Freedman, Leora and Jerry Plotnick. Introductions and Conclusions. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Introduction. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Introductions. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Introductions. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Resources for Writers: Introduction Strategies. Program in Writing and Humanistic Studies. Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Sharpling, Gerald. Writing an Introduction. Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick; Writing Your Introduction. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University.

Useful Phrases and Sentences for Academic & Research Paper Writing

An abstract is a self-contained and short synopsis that describes a larger work. The abstract is the only part of the paper that is published online and in most conference proceedings. Hence abstract constitutes a very important section of your paper. Also, when you submit your paper to a journal, potential reviewers only see the abstract when invited by an editor to review a manuscript. The abstract should include one or two lines briefly describing the topic, scope, purpose, results, and conclusion of your work. The abstract is indexed by search engines, so make sure that it has all the right words that a fellow researcher in the same field will be using while searching for articles online. Also, make sure it is rich with data and numbers to demonstrate the scientific rigor of your article. Be very clear and confident about your findings. Keep it punchy and straight to the point.

The abstract section of your research paper should include the following:

2. Introduction

Introduction section comes after the abstract. Introduction section should provide the reader with a brief overview of your topic and the reasons for conducting research. The introduction is a perfect place to set the scene and make a good first impression. Regarding word count, introduction typically occupies 10-15% of your paper, for example, if the total word count of your paper is 3000, then you should aim for an introduction of around 600 words. It is often recommended that the introduction section of the paper is written after finishing the other sections of the paper. This is because it is difficult to figure out what exactly to put in the introduction section of the paper until you have seen the big picture. Sound very confident about your chosen subject area and back up your arguments with appropriate references. After reading the introduction, the reader must have a clear idea of what to expect from the rest of your research paper.

The introduction section of your research paper should include the following:

  • General introduction
  • Problem definition
  • Gaps in the literature
  • Problems solution
  • Study motivation
  • Aims & objectives
  • Significance and advantages of your work

3. Literature review

The literature review should clearly demonstrate that the author has a good knowledge of the research area. Literature review typically occupies one or two passages in the introduction section. A well-written literature review should provide a critical appraisal of previous studies related to the current research area rather than a simple summary of prior works. The author shouldn’t shy away from pointing out the shortcomings of previous works. However, criticising other’s work without any basis can weaken your paper. This is a perfect place to coin your research question and justify the need for such a study. It is also worth pointing out towards the end of the review that your study is unique and there is no direct literature addressing this issue. Add a few sentences about the significance of your research and how this will add value to the body of knowledge.

The literature review section of your research paper should include the following:

  • Previous literature
  • Limitations of previous research
  • Research questions
  • Research to be explored

4. Methods

The methods section that follows the introduction section should provide a clear description of the experimental procedure, and the reasons behind the choice of specific experimental methods. The methods section should be elaborate enough so that the readers can repeat the experimental procedure and reproduce the results. The scientific rigor of the paper is judged by your materials and methods section, so make sure you elaborate on all the fine details of your experiment. Explain the procedures step-by-step by splitting the main section into multiple sub-sections. Order procedures chronologically with subheadings. Use past tense to describe what you did since you are reporting on a completed experiment. The methods section should describe how the research question was answered and explain how the results were analyzed. Clearly explain various statistical methods used for significance testing and the reasons behind the choice.

The methods section of your research paper should include the following:

  • Experimental setup
  • Data collection
  • Data analysis
  • Statistical testing
  • Assumptions
  • Remit of the experiment

5. Results and Discussion

The results and discussion sections are one of the challenging sections to write. It is important to plan this section carefully as it may contain a large amount of scientific data that needs to be presented in a clear and concise fashion. The purpose of a Results section is to present the key results of your research. Results and discussions can either be combined into one section or organized as separate sections depending on the requirements of the journal to which you are submitting your research paper. Use subsections and subheadings to improve readability and clarity. Number all tables and figures with descriptive titles. Present your results as figures and tables and point the reader to relevant items while discussing the results. This section should highlight significant or interesting findings along with P values for statistical tests. Be sure to include negative results and highlight potential limitations of the paper. You will be criticized by the reviewers if you don’t discuss the shortcomings of your research. This often makes up for a great discussion section, so do not be afraid to highlight them.

The results and discussion section of your research paper should include the following:

  • Findings
  • Comparison with prior studies
  • Limitations of your work
  • Casual arguments
  • Speculations
  • Deductive arguments

6. Conclusion and Future Work:

A research paper should end with a well-constructed conclusion. The conclusion is somewhat similar to the introduction. You restate your aims and objectives and summarize your main findings and evidence for the reader. You can usually do this in one paragraph with three main key points, and one strong take-home message. You should not present any new arguments in your conclusion. You can raise some open questions and set the scene for the next study. This is a good place to register your thoughts about possible future work. Try to explain to your readers what more could be done? What do you think are the next steps to take? What other questions warrant further investigation? Remember, the conclusion is the last part of the essay that your reader will see, so spend some time writing the conclusion so that you can end on a high note.

The conclusion section of your research paper should include the following:

  • Overall summary
  • Further research

7. Acknowledgements and Appendix:

There is no standard way to write acknowledgements. This section allows you to thank all the people who helped you with the project. You can take either formal or informal tone; you won’t be penalized. You can place supplementary materials in the appendix and refer to them in the main text. There is no limit on what you can place in the appendix section. This can include figures, tables, costs, budget, maps, etc. Anything that is essential for the paper but might potentially interrupt the flow of the paper goes in the appendix.

Academic Phrases for Writing Introduction Section of a Research Paper

Introduction section comes after the abstract. Introduction section should provide the reader with a brief overview of your topic and the reasons for conducting research. The introduction is a perfect place to set the scene and make a good first impression. Regarding word count, introduction typically occupies 10-15% of your paper, for example, if the total word count of your paper is 3000, then you should aim for an introduction of around 600 words. It is often recommended that the introduction section of the paper is written after finishing the other sections of the paper. This is because it is difficult to figure out what exactly to put in the introduction section of the paper until you have seen the big picture. Sound very confident about your chosen subject area and back up your arguments with appropriate references. After reading the introduction, the reader must have a clear idea of what to expect from the rest of your research paper.

The introduction section of your research paper should include the following:

  • General introduction
  • Problem definition
  • Gaps in the literature
  • Problems solution
  • Study motivation
  • Aims & objectives
  • Significance and advantages of your work

Academic Phrases, Sentences & Vocabulary

1. General introduction:
Research on __ has a long tradition
For decades, one of the most popular ideas in __ literature is the idea that __
Recent theoretical developments have revealed that __
A common strategy used to study __ is to __
This research constitutes a relatively new area which has emerged from __
These approaches have been influential in the field because of __
In the past several decades, __ have played an important role in __
There are growing appeals for __
This is the field of study that deals with __
Most of the theories of __ are however focused on explaining __
There are three major theoretical and conceptual frameworks for __
The field has gradually broadened as __
This field of study is sometimes referred as __
This has been widely adopted in the field of __
This thesis considers the field of __ as the main subject of its study
One of the major topics to be investigated in this field is __
This is now a mature field which is now being spun out into commercial applications __
This field is maturing, with a wealth of well-understood methods and algorithms __
This field closely follows the paradigm of __
The field has met with great success in many problems __
The field only really took off in the late __ as it became more accessible to __
This is not particularly new and has been used for many years in the field of __
This field closely follows the paradigm of __
Widely considered to be a good way to __
This has been widely adopted in the field of __
This is more widely used at the time of __
This phenomenon has been widely observed
A common technique is to __
This is a technique common in __
There are several common kinds of __

2. Problem definition:
This seems to be a common problem in __
This leads to myriad problems in __
The main problem is that __
There is a further problem with __
One primary problem with __ is that __
The methods are not without their problems as will be discussed in __
The foremost problems are the facts that __
This makes up for the problem of __
This seems to be a common problem in __
This is a complex problem and to simplify it requires __
A challenging problem which arises in this domain is __
These problems are difficult to handle __
This is typically a complex problem __
A well-known problem with __ is that it does not take into account the __
One of the problems is that it considers only the __
The key problem with this technique is __
It is usually an ill-posed problem in the case of __
This problem is well-posed and does not require to impose __
This appears as a more straightforward problem compared to the __
This turns out to be even more problematic because __
The problem with such an implementation is that __
This poses some problems when carrying out the __
This problem has attracted more attention in the field of __
This is a basic chicken-and-egg problem because __
Unfortunately, this approach results in problems related to __
These constraints make the problem difficult to __
Most of the research in this field is aimed at solving this problem.
This remains an open problem in the area.
This problem has received substantial interest.
These examples highlight the problem that __
The main practical problem that confronts us is __

3. Gaps in literature:
There is no previous research using __ approach.
As far as we know, no previous research has investigated __
There has been less previous evidence for __
Other studies have failed to __
To our knowledge, no study has yielded __
No study to date has examined __
Only a few studies have shown __
However, __ has rarely been studied directly.
Moreover, few studies have focussed on __
In particular no study, to our knowledge, has considered __

4. Problems solution:
One way to overcome these problems is to __
There are many alternative methods are available for solving these problems.
In order to rectify the problem of __
A solution to this problem is proposed in __
One approach to solve this problem involves the use of __
An alternative approach to the problem is __
This can be applied to solve these problems.
A number of works have shown that this problem can be overcome by using __
A large number of alternative approaches have been developed over the last few decades to ++
To overcome this problem, in the next section we demonstrate __
One way to overcome this problem is to __
To overcome this problem, some approaches have been made __
One way of recovering from this problem could be to __
This has been proposed to surmount the problems caused by __
A different approach to the traditional problem is given in __
A whole range of different approaches to the problem are available.
These techniques have potential to solve contemporary problems in __
We should tailor specific solutions to specific problems __
The standard solution to the problem is based on __
The solution proposed here addresses only the problem of __
There are techniques that have been developed to solve this problem __
This problem is usually overcome by __
There have been several attempts to solve the problem __
There exist many methods for dealing with this problem __
Broadly speaking, the problem can be addressed by __
One of the simplest ways of tackling this problem is __
This problem has been largely studied and many viable solutions have been found.
In general, this problem can be tackled in two different ways.
Other approaches have been shown to cope with the problem more efficiently.
We will review the main approaches to solve this problem.
Recently, a more general solution has been proposed for this problem.
Both these works provide a solution to the problem.
Recent methods focus on overcoming the problems by proposing different schemes for __
This strategy is not uncommon in this kind of problems.
We can apply our algorithm to solve this difficult problem.
This is how the problem can be tackled __
We have developed this generic method to solve a variety of problems.
We will now demonstrate our method on some specific problems.
Here we solve several problems simultaneously.
We have undergone a rethinking of the problem by __
A possible solution to the problem at hand is __
It is clear that the problem could be easily tackled by __

5. Study motivation:
It is of interest to know whether __ still hold true.
It would be of special interest to__
We therefore analyzed __ and investigated whether __
For this study, it was of interest to investigate __
We investigated whether __ can be partly explained by __
To examine the impact of __, we tested __
We have investigated the effect of __
We characterize different aspects of __
One way to investigate __ was to __
A new approach is therefore needed for __
To illuminate this uncharted area, we examined __

6. Aims & objectives:
The aim is to develop more sophisticated methods for __
The aim of this work is to develop __
The aims in this chapter are twofold: First __, Second __
For our first goal, we focus on two problems __
The aim here is to investigate __
The overall goal of this work was to __
This project aims to develop an overarching framework to __
The aim of the experiment is to compare __
The ultimate goal is to produce a __
The overall goal of this thesis was to pursue __
After defining the problem we explain the goals of the thesis.
With this aim in mind, in this paper we present a new method for __
Our research aims at finding a solution for this challenging problem of __
There is no overall goal, apart from __
We examine some previous work and propose a new method for __
There are too many simultaneous goals making it difficult to __
One of the major aims of this work was to create __
The main objective is to investigate methods for improving __
The objectives can be restated in the light of __
The objective is to devise and implement a system for __
The objectives were partially met by developing a method to __
The objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of __
One of the objectives is to improve the __

7. Significance and advantages of your work:
This thesis documents several key contributions made to the fields of __
This thesis has made a number of significant contributions to the field of __
The contributions made here have wide applicability.
The contributions made should be of wide interest.
The first main contribution proposed in this field is a __
The contributions of this work are presented as follows: __
The main achievements, including contributions to the field can be summarised as follows: __
We summarize the main contributions of this thesis.
The key contribution of this work is the solution it provides __
It has numerous advantages as explained here __
It has significant benefits in terms of __
There is a clear advantage in following the methods of __
This has particular advantages over other __
All of these advantages make it particularly valuable in __
One of the primary benefits of this algorithm is __
This gives a significant advantage because __
These point out the advantages and practicability of __
One of the key benefits of the algorithm is __
The main advantage compared to previous method is __
This present some practical advantages.
The main advantage is the simplified pattern.
One practical advantage of the method is that it can be used in __
The advantage becomes all the more significant when __
In comparison with other techniques, this method has the advantage of __
The most important advantage of this method is that it can perform very well in __
It yielded significant speed advantages when __
The benefit of using the __ is expected to __
The main advantage is that we are able to __
To give some idea of the benefits of this method __
The additional advantage of using this method is that it results in __
This is an important advantage of this algorithm __
These are the main advantages of this method.

Academic Phrasebank – The Largest Collection of Academic Phrases

REF-N-WRITE is proud to announce the launch of the academic phrasebank. The phrasebank is now available as part of the Word AddIn. New buttons and options have been added to the AddIn for the users to access the academic phrasebank and search through academic phrases. A selection of academic phrases from the phrasebank has been made available above for demonstration purposes. The search results are limited to five academic phrases in the demo version.

1. Academic Phrasebank

Academic phrasebank refers to a library containing a collection of English phrases that can be readily used in scientific papers and academic reports. The REF-N-WRITE team has painstakingly created a phrasebank of 20,000 academic writing phrases for use by students and researchers writing research papers. These academic phrases were extracted from high-quality scientific journal articles by a team of academic experts. Only very small chunks of generic text were extracted from previous papers, and hence the use of these academic phrases in new papers will not constitute plagiarism. The academic phrases in the phrasebank are organized in the order in which you will be required to use in a scientific paper. The academic phrases can be accessed by simply clicking on each category.

The academic writing phrases are organized into following sections (1) Introduction; (2) Problem, Solution & Difficulties; (3) Literature Review; (4) Previous Evidence and Findings; (5) Research Gap; (6) Your Work; (7) Section Intro and Scope; (8) Materials and Methods; (9) Measurements and Calculations; (10) Technical Statements; (11) Data Collection and Processing; (12) Data Analysis & Presentation; (13) Statistics; (14) Errors and Discrepancies; (15) Results; (16) Discussion and (17) Acknowledgements. In addition to this, there are some general categories of academic phrases which include: (1) Reasons, Causes & Explanations; (2) Figures, Plots and Tables; (3) Explain or Describe; (4) General Statements and (5) Others.

The various categories available within the academic phrasebank is illustrated below in the following figure.

Screenshot of academic phrasebank

2. Getting Writing Ideas

You can search the academic phrasebank for writing themes and ideas by simply selecting a piece of text in MS Word and then clicking the ‘Writing Ideas’ button. The tool will perform an analysis on the selected text and bring up relevant categories from the academic phrasebank. Then the academic phrases belonging to the categories can be accessed by simply clicking on the category name. The screenshot below demonstrates how you can search for categories relevant to your writing in the academic phrasebank.

Getting writing ideas from the phrasebank

3. Getting Paraphrasing Ideas

REF-N-WRITE AddIn comes with a paraphrasing tool that allows users to search for rephrasing ideas from the academic phrasebank. The user has to select a sentence in MS Word document that they would like to rephrase or reword and click the ‘Paraphrasing Tool’ button in the REF-N-WRITE button panel. The tool will search through the academic phrases and bring up phrase templates relevant to the selected text. The user can use this collection of phrases to get paraphrasing ideas for the text. Furthermore, the user can bring up more similar phrases by clicking on the more button(…) that is shown next to each phrase template in the search results panel. The figure below illustrates how to get paraphrasing ideas from the academic phrasebank.

4. Ref-N-Write Phrasebank vs. Manchester Phrasebank

The Manchester academic phrasebank is the most popular resource of academic writing phrases and was put together by Dr John Morley at The University of Manchester. The academic phrase bank is available in different forms, it is accessible through their website and is also available to purchase as an e-book. One of the motivations behind REF-N-WRITE Phrasebank is to create a fully searchable library of academic phrases that students and researchers can search on-the-fly while writing their papers. The REF-N-WRITE phrase bank is available as a part of the REF-N-WRITE Word AddIn, it means that the users can search through the library and lookup for academic writing phrase ideas within Microsoft Word.

By combining both REF-N-WRITE and Manchester phrasebanks together it is possible to generate high-quality scientific articles. REF-N-WRITE offers import facility which allows users to import documents in PDF and word formats into MS Word and then search through them during the writing process. Since Manchester Phrasebank is available in PDF version, the user using REF-N-WRITE can import the Manchester Phrasebank PDF into REF-N-WRITE and access the phrases from both Manchester Phrasebank and REF-N-WRITE Phrasebank simultaneously. The figure below illustrates phrases from the Manchester phrasebank being accessed within REF-N-WRITE Word AddIn.

Importing Manchester Phrasebank into REF-N-WRITE

5. Importance of using Academic phrases and Scientific words in Research Papers

Academic writing is different from normal every day writing in the sense that most words and terms used in general writing will be considered colloquial if used in research papers. One of the requirements of academic writing is that it requires the use of formal language in writing. We define formal language as the use of well-accepted scientific terms and phrases widely used by your peers in your subject area. In other words, the language you use in your academic essay or paper should be broadly in line with the one used by your academic or research community.

Such a skill is not easy to acquire, it takes time. Typically, your academic supervisor will provide guidance in this regard. When you are writing a research paper, your academic supervisor will review the paper first and provide you with suggestions to improve the language. The benefit of using a good academic phrasebank is that you can start perfecting the writing right from the start as you will be able to lookup for academic phrases and scientific words as you write your first draft. This will reduce the need for multiple revisions as your first version will be in a state that is academically acceptable.

Please check out our training videos. We have made the tutorials short and informative. This will give you a head start with REF-N-WRITE.

17 academic words and phrases to use in your essay

For the vast majority of students, essay writing doesn’t always come easily. Writing at academic level is an acquired skill that can literally take years to master – indeed, many students find they only start to feel really confident writing essays just as their undergraduate course comes to an end!

If this is you, and you’ve come here looking for words and phrases to use in your essay, you’re in the right place. We’ve pulled together a list of essential academic words you can use in the introduction, body, and conclusion of your essays.

Whilst your ideas and arguments should always be your own, borrowing some of the words and phrases listed below is a great way to articulate your ideas more effectively, and ensure that you keep your reader’s attention from start to finish.

It goes without saying (but we’ll say it anyway) that there’s a certain formality that comes with academic writing. Casual and conversational phrases have no place. Obviously, there are no LOLs, LMFAOs, and OMGs. But formal academic writing can be much more subtle than this, and as we’ve mentioned above, requires great skill.

So, to get you started on polishing your own essay writing ability, try using the words in this list as an inspirational starting point.

Words to use in your introduction

The trickiest part of academic writing often comes right at the start, with your introduction. Of course, once you’ve done your plan and have your arguments laid out, you need to actually put pen to paper (or fingers to keyboard) and begin your essay.

You need to consider that your reader doesn’t have a clue about your topic or arguments, so your first sentence must summarise these. Explain what your essay is going to talk about as though you were explaining it to a five year old – without losing the formality of your academic writing, of course! To do this, use any of the below words or phrases to help keep you on track.

1. Firstly, secondly, thirdly

Even though it sounds obvious, your argument will be clearer if you deliver the ideas in the right order. These words can help you to offer clarity and structure to the way you expose your ideas. This is an extremely effective method of presenting the facts clearly. Don’t be too rigid and feel you have to number each point, but using this system can be a good way to get an argument off the ground, and link arguments together.

2. In view of; in light of; considering

These essay phrases are useful to begin your essay. They help you pose your argument based on what other authors have said or a general concern about your research. They can also both be used when a piece of evidence sheds new light on an argument. Here’s an example:

The result of the American invasion has severely impaired American interests in the Middle East, exponentially increasing popular hostility to the United States throughout the region, a factor which has proved to be a powerful recruitment tool for extremist terrorist groups (Isakhan, 2015). Considering [or In light of / In view of] the perceived resulting threat to American interests, it could be argued that the Bush administration failed to fully consider the impact of their actions before pushing forward with the war.

3. According to X; X stated that; referring to the views of X

Introducing the views of an author who has a comprehensive knowledge of your particular area of study is a crucial part of essay writing. Including a quote that fits naturally into your work can be a bit of a struggle, but these academic phrases provide a great way in.

Even though it’s fine to reference a quote in your introduction, we don’t recommend you start your essay with a direct quote. Use your own words to sum up the views you’re mentioning, for example:

As Einstein often reiterated, experiments can prove theories, but experiments don’t give birth to theories.

“A theory can be proved by experiment, but no path leads from experiment to the birth of a theory.” .

See the difference?

And be sure to reference correctly too, when using quotes or paraphrasing someone else’s words.

Adding information and flow

The flow of your essay is extremely important. You don’t want your reader to be confused by the rhythm of your writing and get distracted away from your argument, do you? No! So, we recommend using some of the following ‘flow’ words, which are guaranteed to help you articulate your ideas and arguments in a chronological and structured order.

4. Moreover; furthermore; in addition; what’s more

These types of academic phrases are perfect for expanding or adding to a point you’ve already made without interrupting the flow altogether. “Moreover”, “furthermore” and “in addition” are also great linking phrases to begin a new paragraph.

Here are some examples:
The dissociation of tau protein from microtubules destabilises the latter resulting in changes to cell structure, and neuronal transport. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to further oxidative stress causing increased levels of nitrous oxide, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidases.

On the data of this trial, no treatment recommendations should be made. The patients are suspected, but not confirmed, to suffer from pneumonia. Furthermore, five days is too short a follow up time to confirm clinical cure.

5. In order to; to that end; to this end

These are helpful academic phrases to introduce an explanation or state your aim. Oftentimes your essay will have to prove how you intend to achieve your goals. By using these sentences you can easily expand on points that will add clarity to the reader.

For example:

My research entailed hours of listening and recording the sound of whales in order to understand how they communicate.

Dutch tech companies offer support in the fight against the virus. To this end, an online meeting took place on Wednesday.

Even though we recommend the use of these phrases, DO NOT use them too often. You may think you sound like a real academic but it can be a sign of overwriting!

6. In other words; to put it another way; that is; to put it more simply

Complement complex ideas with simple descriptions by using these sentences. These are excellent academic phrases to improve the continuity of your essay writing. They should be used to explain a point you’ve already made in a slightly different way. Don’t use them to repeat yourself, but rather to elaborate on a certain point that needs further explanation. Or, to succinctly round up what just came before.

For example:
A null hypothesis is a statement that there is no relationship between phenomena. In other words, there is no treatment effect.

Nothing could come to be in this pre-world time, “because no part of such a time possesses, as compared with any other, a distinguishing condition of existence rather than non-existence.” That is, nothing exists in this pre-world time, and so there can be nothing that causes the world to come into existence.

7. Similarly; likewise; another key fact to remember; as well as; an equally significant aspect of

These essay words are a good choice to add a piece of information that agrees with an argument or fact you just mentioned. In academic writing, it is very relevant to include points of view that concur with your opinion. This will help you to situate your research within a research context.

Also, academic words and phrases like the above are also especially useful so as not to repeat the word ‘also’ too many times. (We did that on purpose to prove our point!) Your reader will be put off by the repetitive use of simple conjunctions. The quality of your essay will drastically improve just by using academic phrases and words such as ‘similarly’, ‘as well as’, etc. Here, let us show you what we mean:

In 1996, then-transport minister Steve Norris enthused about quadrupling cycling trips by 2012. Similarly, former prime minister David Cameron promised a “cycling revolution” in 2013…

Or

Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI) aims to bridge the gap of access to electricity across the continent (. ). Another key fact to remember is that it must expand cost-efficient access to electricity to nearly 1 billion people.

The wording “not only… but also” is a useful way to elaborate on a similarity in your arguments but in a more striking way.

Comparing and contrasting information

Academic essays often include opposite opinions or information in order to prove a point. It is important to show all the aspects that are relevant to your research. Include facts and researchers’ views that disagree with a point of your essay to show your knowledge of your particular field of study. Below are a few words and ways of introducing alternative arguments.

8. Conversely; however; alternatively; on the contrary; on the other hand; whereas

Finding a seamless method to present an alternative perspective or theory can be hard work, but these terms and phrases can help you introduce the other side of the argument. Let’s look at some examples:

89% of respondents living in joint families reported feeling financially secure. Conversely, only 64% of those who lived in nuclear families said they felt financially secure.

The first protagonist has a social role to fill in being a father to those around him, whereas the second protagonist relies on the security and knowledge offered to him by Chaplin.

“On the other hand” can also be used to make comparisons when worded together with “on the one hand.”

9. By contrast; in comparison; then again; that said; yet

These essay phrases show contrast, compare facts, and present uncertainty regarding a point in your research. “That said” and “yet” in particular will demonstrate your expertise on a topic by showing the conditions or limitations of your research area. For example:

All the tests were positive. That said, we must also consider the fact that some of them had inconclusive results.

10. Despite this; provided that; nonetheless

Use these phrases and essay words to demonstrate a positive aspect of your subject-matter regardless of lack of evidence, logic, coherence, or criticism. Again, this kind of information adds clarity and expertise to your academic writing.

A good example is:

Despite the criticism received by X, the popularity of X remains undiminished.

11. Importantly; significantly; notably; another key point

Another way to add contrast is by highlighting the relevance of a fact or opinion in the context of your research. These academic words help to introduce a sentence or paragraph that contains a very meaningful point in your essay.

Giving examples

A good piece of academic writing will always include examples. Illustrating your essay with examples will make your arguments stronger. Most of the time, examples are a way to clarify an explanation; they usually offer an image that the reader can recognise. The most common way to introduce an illustration is “for example.” However, in order not to repeat yourself here are a few other options.

12. For instance; to give an illustration of; to exemplify; to demonstrate; as evidence; to elucidate

The academic essays that are receiving top marks are the ones that back up every single point made. These academic phrases are a useful way to introduce an example. If you have a lot of examples, avoid repeating the same phrase to facilitate the readability of your essay.

Here’s an example:

‘High involvement shopping’, an experiential process described by Wu et al. (2015, p. 299) relies upon the development of an identity-based alliance between the customer and the brand. Celebrity status at Prada, for example, has created an alliance between the brand and a new generation of millennial customers.

Concluding your essay

Concluding words for essays are necessary to wrap up your argument. Your conclusion must include a brief summary of the ideas that you just exposed without being redundant. The way these ideas are expressed should lead to the final statement and core point you have arrived at in your present research.

13. In conclusion; to conclude; to summarise; in sum; in the final analysis; on close analysis

These are phrases for essays that will introduce your concluding paragraph. You can use them at the beginning of a sentence. They will show the reader that your essay is coming to an end:

On close analysis and appraisal, we see that the study by Cortis lacks essential features of the highest quality quantitative research.

14. Persuasive; compelling

Essay words like these ones can help you emphasize the most relevant arguments of your paper. Both are used in the same way: “the most persuasive/compelling argument is…”.

15. Therefore; this suggests that; it can be seen that; the consequence is

When you’re explaining the significance of the results of a piece of research, these phrases provide the perfect lead up to your explanation.

16. Above all; chiefly; especially; most significantly; it should be noted

Your summary should include the most relevant information or research factor that guided you to your conclusion. Contrary to words such as “persuasive” or “compelling”, these essay words are helpful to draw attention to an important point. For example:

The feasibility and effectiveness of my research has been proven chiefly in the last round of laboratory tests.

Film noir is, and will continue to be, highly debatable, controversial, and unmarketable – but above all, for audience members past, present and to come, extremely enjoyable as a form of screen media entertainment.

17. All things considered

This essay phrase is meant to articulate how you give reasons to your conclusions. It means that after you considered all the aspects related to your study, you have arrived to the conclusion you are demonstrating.

Summary

After mastering the use of these academic words and phrases, we guarantee you will see an immediate change in the quality of your essays. The structure will be easier to follow, and the reader’s experience will improve. You’ll also feel more confident articulating your ideas and using facts and examples. So jot them all down, and watch your essays go from ‘good’ to ‘great’!

If you need more help with your essay writing, our professional academics have considerable experience in a wide range of subject areas, and clearly demonstrate this expertise in their work. Whatever your subject or topic, we can help by providing the support you need.

4 Step approach to writing the Introduction section of a research paper

4 Step approach to writing the Introduction section of a research paper

If you want others to cite your paper, you should make sure they read it first. Let us assume that the title and the abstract of your paper have convinced your peers that they should see your paper. It is then the job of the Introduction section to ensure that they start reading it and keep reading it, to pull them in and to show them around as it were, guiding them to the other parts of the paper (Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion).

This article tells you, with examples, what you should include in the Introduction and what you should leave out, and what reviewers and journal editors look for in this section.

What is the function of the Introduction section?

Put simply, the Introduction should answer the question ‘Why:’ why you choose that topic for research; why it is important; why you adopted a particular method or approach; and so on. You can also think of the Introduction as the section that points out the gap in knowledge that the rest of the paper will fill, or the section in which you define and claim your territory within the broad area of research.

The other job the Introduction should do is to give some background information and set the context. You can do this by describing the research problem you considered or the research question you asked (in the main body of the paper, you will offer the solution to the problem or the answer to the question) and by briefly reviewing any other solutions or approaches that have been tried in the past.

Remember that a thesis or a dissertation usually has a separate chapter titled ‘Review of literature,’ but a research paper has no such section; instead, the Introduction includes a review in brief.

Now that you have given the background and set the context, the last part of the Introduction should specify the objectives of the experiment or analysis of the study described in the paper. This concluding part of the Introduction should include specific details or the exact question(s) to be answered later in the paper.

The 4-step approach to writing the Introduction section

As a rule of thumb, this section accounts for about 10% of the total word count of the body of a typical research paper, or about 400 words spread over three paragraphs in a 4000-word paper. 1 With that, let us now understand how to write the Introduction section step-by-step:

1. Provide background information and set the context.

This initial part of the Introduction prepares the readers for more detailed and specific information that is given later. The first couple of sentences are typically broad.

Below are some examples:

  • A paper on organic matter in soil can begin thus: ‘Sustainable crop production is a function of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil, which, in turn, are markedly affected by the organic matter in soil.’
  • A paper that discusses the possible beneficial role of bacteria in treating cancer can begin as follows: ‘The role of bacteria as anticancer agent was recognized almost hundred years back.’
  • A paper on lithium batteries can introduce the study with the following sentence: ‘The rapid growth of lithium ion batteries and their new uses, such as powering electric cars and storing electricity for grid supply, demands more reliable methods to understand and predict battery performance and life.’

At the same time, the introductory statement should not be too broad: note that in the examples above, the Introduction did not begin by talking about agriculture, cancer, or batteries in general, but by mentioning organic matter in soil, the role of bacteria, and lithium ion batteries.

Once the first sentence has introduced the broad field, the next sentence can point to the specific area within that broad field. As you may have noticed, the papers in the examples mentioned above introduced the subfield by mentioning 1) remission of some types cancer following accidental infection by Streptococcus pyogenes, 2) organic matter in soil as a source of nutrients for plants and of energy for microorganisms, and 3) imaging techniques to visualize the 3-dimensional structure of the materials and components of batteries on nanoscale.

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2. Introduce the specific topic of your research and explain why it is important.

As you can see from the above examples, the authors are moving toward presenting the specific topic of their research. So now in the following part, you can bring in some statistics to show the importance of the topic or the seriousness of the problem.

Here are some examples:

  • A paper on controlling malaria by preventive measures, can mention the number of people affected, the number of person-hours lost, or the cost of treating the disease.
  • A paper on developing crops that require little water can mention the frequency of severe droughts or the decrease in crop production because of droughts.
  • A paper on more efficient methods of public transport can mention the extent of air pollution due to exhausts from cars and two-wheelers or the shrinking ratio between the number of automobiles and road length.

Another way to emphasize the importance of the research topic is to highlight the possible benefits from solving the problem or from finding an answer to the question: possible savings, greater production, longer-lasting devices, and so on. This approach emphasizes the positive.

For example, instead of saying that X dollars are lost because of malaria every year, say that X dollars can be saved annually if malaria is prevented, or X millions litres of water can be saved by dispensing with irrigation, or X person-hours can be saved in the form of avoided illnesses because of improved air quality or reduced pollution.

3. Mention past attempts to solve the research problem or to answer the research question.

As mentioned earlier, a formal review of literature is out of place in the Introduction section of a research paper; however, it is appropriate to indicate any earlier relevant research and clarify how your research differs from those attempts. The differences can be simple: you may have repeated the same set of experiments but with a different organism, or elaborated (involving perhaps more sophisticated or advanced analytical instruments) the study with a much larger and diverse sample, or a widely different geographical setting.

Here are two examples:

  • ‘Although these studies were valuable, they were undertaken when the draft genome sequence had not been available and therefore provide little information on the evolutionary and regulatory mechanisms.’
  • ‘Plant response is altered by insect colonization and behaviour but these aspects have been studied mostly in sole crops, whereas the present paper examines the relationship between crops and their pests in an intercropping system.’

4. Conclude the Introduction by mentioning the specific objectives of your research.

The earlier paragraphs should lead logically to specific objectives of your study. Note that this part of the Introduction gives specific details: for instance, the earlier part of the Introduction may mention the importance of controlling malaria whereas the concluding part will specify what methods of control were used and how they were evaluated. At the same time, avoid too much detail because those belong to the Materials and Methods section of the paper.

If, for example, your research was about finding the right proportions of two metals in an alloy and you tested ten different proportions, you do not have to list all the ten proportions: it is enough to say that the proportions varied from 50:50 to 10:90.

Here are two more examples:

  • ‘We aimed to assess the effectiveness of four disinfection strategies on hospital-wide incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile
  • ‘We aimed (1) to assess the epidemiological changes before and after the upsurge of scarlet fever in China in 2011; (2) to explore the reasons for the upsurge and the epidemiological factors that contributed to it; and (3) to assess how these factors could be managed to prevent future epidemics.’

There are different ways of constructing the objectives. Using questions 2 , hypotheses, and infinitives are the more common constructions (both examples in the previous paragraph use infinitives), each of which is illustrated below with some fictitious text:

  • ‘Do some genes in wheat form gene networks? If they do, to what extent as compared to rice?’
  • ‘Do the regulatory elements in the promoters of those genes display any conserved motifs?’
  • ‘Finally, and more specifically, do those genes in wheat display any tissue- or organ-specific expression pattern?’

‘We decided to test the following four hypotheses related to employees of information-technology companies:

H1: Career stages influence work values.

H2: Career stages influence the level of job satisfaction.

H3: Career stages do not influence organizational commitment.’

Using infinitives

‘To examine the response of Oryza sativa to four different doses of nitrogen in terms of 1) biomass production, 2) plant height, and 3) crop duration.’

Compared to two other sections of a typical research paper, namely Methods and Results, Introduction and Discussion are more difficult to write. However, the 4-step approach described in this article should ease the task.

A final tip: although the Introduction is the first section of the main text of your paper, you don’t have to write that section first. You can write it, or at least revise it, after you have written the rest of the paper: this will make the Introduction not only easier to write but also more compelling.

To learn in more detail the guidelines to write a great Introduction section, check out this course: How to write a strong introduction for your research paper

1. Araújo C G. 2014. Detailing the writing of scientific manuscripts: 25-30 paragraphs. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 102 (2): e21–e23

2. Boxman R and Boxman E. 2017. Communicating Science: a practical guide for engineers and physical scientists, pp. 7–9. Singapore: World Scientific. 276 pp.

Related reading:

  • The secret to writing the introduction and methods section of a manuscript
  • Tips for writing the perfect IMRAD manuscript

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Here are two more examples:

  • ‘We aimed to assess the effectiveness of four disinfection strategies on hospital-wide incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms andClostridium difficile
  • ‘We aimed (1) to assess the epidemiological changes before and after the upsurge of scarlet fever in China in 2011; (2) to explore the reasons for the upsurge and the epidemiological factors that contributed to it; and (3) to assess how these factors could be managed to prevent future epidemics.’

There are different ways of constructing the objectives. Using questions 2 , hypotheses, and infinitives are the more common constructions (both examples in the previous paragraph use infinitives), each of which is illustrated below with some fictitious text:

  • ‘Do some genes in wheat form gene networks? If they do, to what extent as compared to rice?’
  • ‘Do the regulatory elements in the promoters of those genes display any conserved motifs?’
  • ‘Finally, and more specifically, do those genes in wheat display any tissue- or organ-specific expression pattern?’

‘We decided to test the following four hypotheses related to employees of information-technology companies:

H1: Career stages influence work values.

H2: Career stages influence the level of job satisfaction.

H3: Career stages do not influence organizational commitment.’

Using infinitives

‘To examine the response of Oryza sativa to four different doses of nitrogen in terms of 1) biomass production, 2) plant height, and 3) crop duration.’

Compared to two other sections of a typical research paper, namely Methods and Results, Introduction and Discussion are more difficult to write. However, the 4-step approach described in this article should ease the task.

A final tip: although the Introduction is the first section of the main text of your paper, you don’t have to write that section first. You can write it, or at least revise it, after you have written the rest of the paper: this will make the Introduction not only easier to write but also more compelling.

The Best Phrases for Writing Academic Papers

Write the Right Words in the Right Place

If you are a graduate student, researcher, and/or professor, you already know that composing academic documents can be a frustrating and time-consuming undertaking. In addition to including all the necessary study content, you must also present it in the right order and convey the required information using the proper institutional language. Deciding exactly which language to put in which section can get confusing as you constantly question your choice of phrasing: “Does the Results section require this kind of explanation? Should I introduce my research with a comparison or with background research? How do I even begin the Discussion section?

To help you choose the right word for the right purpose, Wordvice has created a handy academic writing “cheat sheet” with ready-made formulaic expressions for all major sections of a research paper (Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion) and for reaching different objectives within each section.

This downloadable quick-reference guide contains common phrases used in academic papers, a sample journal submission cover letter, and a template rebuttal letter to be modified and used in case of receipt of a letter from the journal editor.

Each section includes annotations explaining the purposes of the expressions and a summary of essential information so that you can easily find the language your are looking for whenever you need to apply it to your paper. Using this quick reference will help you write more complete and appropriate phrases in your research writing and correspondence with journal editors.

Reference Guide Content

1. Common Research Paper Phrases (Listed by Manuscript Section)

  • Gathered from hundreds of thousands of published manuscripts, these frequently used key sentences and phrases are tailored to what each section of your paper should accomplish.
  • From the abstract to the conclusion, each section is tied together by a logical structure and flow of information.
  • Refer to this index when you are unsure of the correct phrases to use (in your paper/article, dissertation, or thesis) or if you are a non-native speaker and are seeking phrasing that is both natural in tone and official in form.

2. Acade mic Search Tools Index

  • The search tools index is a concise compilation of some of the best academic research search tools and databases available that contain information about paper composition and relevant journals.
  • Locate the sites and tools most useful for your needs using our summary of site content and features.

3. Sample Journal Submission Cover Letter with Formal Expressions

The cover letter is an essential part of the journal submission process, yet a great many researchers struggle with how to compose their cover letters to journal editors in a way that will effectively introduce their study and spur editors to read and consider their manuscript.

This sample cover letter not only provides an exemplary model of what a strong cover letter should look like, but includes template language authors can apply directly to their own cover letters. By applying the formal language of the cover letter to the particular details of a particular study, the letter helps authors build a strong opening case for journals to consider their manuscript.

4. Rebuttal Letter Template

The rebuttal letter is written as a response to previously received correspondence from journal editors that can take the form of a rejection, deferment, or request letter, which often requests changes, additions, or omission of content or augmentation of formatting in the manuscript. The rebuttal letter is therefore usually an author’s last chance to get their manuscript published in a given journal, and the language they use must convince the editor that an author’s manuscript is ready (or will be ready) for publication in their journal. It must therefore contain a precise rationale and explanation to accomplish this goal.

As with the journal submission cover letter, knowing exactly what to include in this letter and how to compose it can be difficult. One must be persuasive without being pushy; formal but yet candid and frank. This template rebuttal letter is constructed to help authors navigate these issues and respond to authors with confidence that they have done everything possible to get their manuscript published in the journal to which they have submitted.

5. Useful Phrases for the Journal Submission Cover Letter/Rebuttal Letter

As with research papers, there are usually dozens of options for how to phrase the language in letters to journal editors. This section suggests several of the most common phrases that authors use to express their objectives and persuade editors to publish their journals. And as with the section on “Common Research Paper Phrases,” you will find here that each phrase is listed under a heading that indicates its objective so that authors know when and where to apply these expressions.

Use this reference guide as another resource in your toolkit to make the research paper writing and journal submission processes a bit easier. And remember that there are many excellent resources out there if you require additional assistance.

Wordvice paper editing services, dissertation editing services, and thesis editing services are specifically tailored to help researchers polish their papers to get the very most out of their research writing. Visit our Resources pages for great articles and videos on academic writing and journal submission.

How to write an introduction section of a scientific article?

An article primarily includes the following sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, and conclusion. Before writing the introduction, the main steps, the heading and the familiarity level of the readers should be considered. Writing should begin when the experimental system and the equipment are available. The introduction section comprises the first portion of the manuscript, and it should be written using the simple present tense. Additionally, abbreviations and explanations are included in this section. The main goal of the introduction is to convey basic information to the readers without obligating them to investigate previous publications and to provide clues as to the results of the present study. To do this, the subject of the article should be thoroughly reviewed, and the aim of the study should be clearly stated immediately after discussing the basic references. In this review, we aim to convey the principles of writing the introduction section of a manuscript to residents and young investigators who have just begun to write a manuscript.

Introduction

When entering a gate of a magnificent city we can make a prediction about the splendor, pomposity, history, and civilization we will encounter in the city. Occasionally, gates do not give even a glimpse of the city, and it can mislead the visitors about inner sections of the city. Introduction sections of the articles are like gates of a city. It is a presentation aiming at introducing itself to the readers, and attracting their attention. Attractiveness, clarity, piquancy, and analytical capacity of the presentation will urge the reader to read the subsequent sections of the article. On the other hand as is understood from the motto of antique Greek poet Euripides “a bad beginning makes a bad ending”, ‘Introduction’ section of a scientific article is important in that it can reveal the conclusion of the article. [1]

It is useful to analyze the issues to be considered in the ‘Introduction’ section under 3 headings. Firstly, information should be provided about the general topic of the article in the light of the current literature which paves the way for the disclosure of the objective of the manuscript. Then the specific subject matter, and the issue to be focused on should be dealt with, the problem should be brought forth, and fundamental references related to the topic should be discussed. Finally, our recommendations for solution should be described, in other words our aim should be communicated. When these steps are followed in that order, the reader can track the problem, and its solution from his/her own perspective under the light of current literature. Otherwise, even a perfect study presented in a non-systematized, confused design will lose the chance of reading. Indeed inadequate information, inability to clarify the problem, and sometimes concealing the solution will keep the reader who has a desire to attain new information away from reading the manuscript. [1–3]

First of all, explanation of the topic in the light of the current literature should be made in clear, and precise terms as if the reader is completely ignorant of the subject. In this section, establishment of a warm rapport between the reader, and the manuscript is aimed. Since frantic plunging into the problem or the solution will push the reader into the dilemma of either screening the literature about the subject matter or refraining from reading the article. Updated, and robust information should be presented in the ‘Introduction’ section.

Then main topic of our manuscript, and the encountered problem should be analyzed in the light of the current literature following a short instance of brain exercise. At this point the problems should be reduced to one issue as far as possible. Of course, there might be more than one problem, however this new issue, and its solution should be the subject matter of another article. Problems should be expressed clearly. If targets are more numerous, and complex, solutions will be more than one, and confusing.

Finally, the last paragraphs of the ‘Introduction’ section should include the solution in which we will describe the information we generated, and related data. Our sentences which arouse curiosity in the readers should not be left unanswered. The reader who thinks to obtain the most effective information in no time while reading a scientific article should not be smothered with mysterious sentences, and word plays, and the readers should not be left alone to arrive at a conclusion by themselves. If we have contrary expectations, then we might write an article which won’t have any reader. A clearly expressed or recommended solutions to an explicitly revealed problem is also very important for the integrity of the ‘Introduction’ section. [1–5]

We can summarize our arguments with the following example ( Figure 1 ). The introduction section of the exemplary article is written in simple present tense which includes abbreviations, acronyms, and their explanations. Based on our statements above we can divide the introduction section into 3 parts. In the first paragraph, miniaturization, and evolvement of pediatric endourological instruments, and competitions among PNL, ESWL, and URS in the treatment of urinary system stone disease are described, in other words the background is prepared. In the second paragraph, a newly defined system which facilitates intrarenal access in PNL procedure has been described. Besides basic references related to the subject matter have been given, and their outcomes have been indicated. In other words, fundamental references concerning main subject have been discussed. In the last paragraph the aim of the researchers to investigate the outcomes, and safety of the application of this new method in the light of current information has been indicated.

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